Biography Inigo Jones was one of the greatest architects in England during the period of early Baroque architectureand the first to introduce a style of Renaissance architecturebased on the work of Andrea Palladio This style was founded on the values of Greek architecture and the traditions of Roman architecture as outlined by Vitruvius. In addition to his architecture - which he only took up in his late 30s - Inigo Jones is noted for his drawingand his costume and scenery designs for the popular court masques. But it was his architectural skills that gave him significant influence and prestige at the 17th century royal courts of James I and Charles I.
At the same time, the switch from brick and timber to more permanent stone stimulated Greek architects to design a basic architectural "template" for temples and other similar public buildings.
This first "template", known as the "Doric Order" of architecture, laid down a series of rules concerning the characteristics and dimensions of columns, upper facades and decorative works.
Subsequent "templates" included the Ionic Order from and the Corinthian Order from Types of Buildings Unlike their Minoan and Mycenean ancestors, the Ancient Greeks did not have royalty, and therefore had no need for palaces. This was why their architecture was devoted to public buildings, such as the temple, including the small circular variant tholos ; the central market place agorawith its covered colonnade stoa ; the monumental gateway or processional entrance propylon ; the council building bouleuterion the open-air theatre; the gymnasium palaestra ; the hippodrome horse racing ; the stadium athletics ; and the monumental tomb mausoleum.
But of all these buildings, it is the temple that best captures the qualities of Greek design.
Greek Orders of Architecture The Greek Temple Except for the circular tholos, most Greek temples were oblong, roughly twice as long as they were wide. For comparison, the dimensions of the Parthenon are feet in length, feet in width.
The typical oblong floor plan incorporated a colonnade of columns peristyle on all four sides; a front porch pronaosa back porch opisthodomos. The upper works of the temple usually consisted of mudbrick and wood, except for the upper facade which was usually stone, and designed according to the Order Doric, Ionic.
Columns were typically carved from limestone, with upper facades usually decorated with marble. The interior of the Greek temple typically consisted of an inner shrine cella, or naos which housed the cult statue, and sometimes one or two antechambers, which were used as storage places for devotees to leave their votive offerings, like money, precious objects, and weapons.
For a brief comparison between the pagan Greek temple and the Christian church, see: Early Christian Art Layout The layout of the inner shrine, the other chambers if any and surrounding columns usually followed one of five basic designs, named as follows.
Temple B, Selinunte, Sicily, c. The Parthenon, Athens, BCE 5 If the colonnade encircling the building comprised a double row of columns, it was known as a dipteral temple.
Base and Walls The temple was built on a masonry base crepidomawhich elevated it above the surrounding ground. The base usually consists of three steps: Like the Parthenon, most temples have a three-step base, although the Temple of Zeus at Olympus, has two, while the Temple of Apollo at Didyma has six.
Roof All early temples had a flat thatched roof, supported by columns hypostylebut as soon as walls were made from stone and could therefore support a heavier load, temples were given a slightly sloping roof, covered with ceramic terracotta tiles.
|Keep Exploring Britannica||See Article History Palladianism, style of architecture based on the writings and buildings of the humanist and theorist from Vicenza, Andrea Palladio —80perhaps the greatest architect of the latter 16th century and certainly the most influential.|
|Project MUSE - The Stage Designs of Inigo Jones: The European Context (review)||Europe, to Inigo Jones was important for introducing Italian design into a country that was only haphazardly acquainted with the forms of Renaissance architecture.|
These roof tiles could be up to three-feet long and weigh as much as 80 pounds. Column and Lintel Greek architects and building engineers knew about both the "arch" see, for instance, The Rhodes Footbridge, 4th century BCE and the "vault" corbel and barrel typesbut they made little use of either in their architectural construction.
Instead, they preferred to rely on the use of "post and lintel" techniques, involving vertical uprights columns or posts supporting horizontal beams lintels. This method, known as trabeated construction, dates back to earliest times when temples were made from timber and clay, and was later applied to stone posts and horizontal stone beams.
However, it remained a relatively primitive method of roofing an area, since it required a large number of supporting columns.
The stone columns themselves usually consisted of a series of solid stone "drums" - set one upon the other, without mortar - but sometimes joined inside with bronze pegs. The diameter of columns usually decreases from the bottom upwards, and to correct any illusion of concavity, Greek architects usually tapered them with a slight outward curve: Each column is composed of a shaft and a capital; some also have a base.
The shaft may be decorated with vertical or spiral grooves, called fluting. The capital has two parts: The appearance of the echinus and abacus varies according to the stylistic "template" or "Order" used in the temple's construction.
Doric Order capitals are plainer and more austere, while Ionic and Corinthian capitals are more ornate. Entablature and Pediment The temple's columns support a two-tier horizontal structure: The entablature - the first tier - is the major horizontal structural element supporting the roof, and encircles the whole building.
It is made up of three sections. The lowest section is the "architrave", made up of a series of stone lintels which span the spaces between the columns. Each joint sits directly above the centre of each capital.
The middle section is the "frieze", consisting of a broad horizontal band of relief sculpture.Roman Architecture. Unlike the more creative and intellectual Greeks, the Romans were essentially practical people with a flair for engineering, construction and military matters.
It talk about the life of Inigo Jones. Explore. Explore Scribd often using ideas which are not present in Palladio’s buildings or designs. Jones in fact in his architectural compositions demonstrates a position exactly similar to that of his contemporary See An Expostulation with Inigo Jones, To Inigo, Marquess Would Be, a Corollary.
The architecture of Ancient Greece concerns the buildings erected on the Greek mainland, the Aegean Islands, and throughout the Greek colonies in Asia Minor (Turkey), Sicily and Italy, during the approximate period BCE.
Arguably the greatest form of . They are far inferior to those in the Harris and Higgott catalogue to the Inigo Jones: Complete Architectural Drawings exhibition, even though that work does not provide continental parallels. In building his arguments, Peacock makes use of the books and marginal notations found in Jones’s own library.
London is the second largest urban area – and largest city (see List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits) – in the European Union area; as the ancient city of Londinium founded in the first century CE and nearly continuously inhabited, it is not characterised by any single predominant architectural style but areas of the city exhibit very strong and influential.
century, the architect and designer Inigo Jones was the driving force behind the elaborate productions of the English court masque, while the stage machinery of Nicola Sabbatini and the designs of Giacomo Torelli exerted considerable influence in .