Sophisticated utilitarian

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Sophisticated utilitarian

Rawls, John | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Types of Hedonism a. Folk Hedonism When the term "hedonism" is used in modern literature, or by non-philosophers in their everyday talk, its meaning is quite different from the meaning it takes when used in the discussions of philosophers.

Non-philosophers tend Sophisticated utilitarian think of a hedonist as a person who seeks out pleasure for themselves without any particular regard for their own future well-being or for the well-being of Sophisticated utilitarian. Philosophers commonly refer to this everyday understanding of hedonism as "Folk Hedonism.

Value Hedonism and Prudential Hedonism When philosophers discuss hedonism, they are most likely to be referring to hedonism about value, and especially the slightly more specific theory, hedonism about well-being. Hedonism as a theory about value best referred to as Value Hedonism holds that all and only pleasure is intrinsically valuable and all and only pain is intrinsically disvaluable.

Sophisticated utilitarian

The term "intrinsically" is an important part of the definition and is best understood in contrast to the term "instrumentally. Pleasure is thought to be intrinsically valuable because, even if it did not lead to any other benefit, it would still be good to experience. Money is an example of an instrumental good; its value for us comes from what we can do with it what we can buy with it.

The fact that a copious amount of money has no value if no one ever sells anything reveals that money lacks intrinsic value. Value Hedonism reduces everything of value to pleasure.

For example, a Value Hedonist would explain the instrumental value of money by describing how the things we can buy with money, such as food, shelter, and status-signifying goods, bring us pleasure or help us to avoid pain. Hedonism as a theory about well-being best referred to as Prudential Hedonism is more specific than Value Hedonism because it stipulates what the value is for.

Some philosophers replace "people" with "animals" or "sentient creatures," so as to apply Prudential Hedonism more widely.

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Singer questions why some humans can see the intrinsic disvalue in human pain, but do not also accept that it is bad for sentient non-human animals to experience pain. When Prudential Hedonists claim that happiness is what they value most, they intend happiness to be understood as a preponderance of pleasure over pain.

An important distinction between Prudential Hedonism and Folk Hedonism is that Prudential Hedonists usually understand that pursuing pleasure and avoiding pain in the very short-term is not always the best strategy for achieving the best long-term balance of pleasure over pain.

Prudential Hedonism is an integral part of several derivative types of hedonistic theory, all of which have featured prominently in philosophical debates of the past. Since Prudential Hedonism plays this important role, the majority of this article is dedicated to Prudential Hedonism.

First, however, the main derivative types of hedonism are briefly discussed.

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Motivational Hedonism Motivational Hedonism more commonly referred to by the less descriptive label, " Psychological Hedonism " is the theory that the desires to encounter pleasure and to avoid pain guide all of our behavior.

Most accounts of Motivational Hedonism include both conscious and unconscious desires for pleasure, but emphasize the latter. Bentham used the idea to support his theory of Hedonistic Utilitarianism discussed below.

Weak versions of Motivational Hedonism hold that the desires to seek pleasure and avoid pain often or always have some influence on our behavior. Weak versions are generally considered to be uncontroversially true and not especially useful for philosophy.

Philosophers have been more interested in strong accounts of Motivational Hedonism, which hold that all behavior is governed by the desires to encounter pleasure and to avoid pain and only those desires.

Strong accounts of Motivational Hedonism have been used to support some of the normative types of hedonism and to argue against non-hedonistic normative theories. Glaucon believes that a strong version of Motivational Hedonism is true, but Socrates does not.

Glaucon asserts that, emboldened with the power provided by the Ring of Gyges, everyone would succumb to the inherent and ubiquitous desire to pursue their own ends at the expense of others. Socrates disagrees, arguing that good people would be able to overcome this desire because of their strong love of justice, fostered through philosophising.We believe in a customized experienced.

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Sophisticated Utilitarian Topics: Fundraising, Disability Pages: 1 ( words) Published: September 28, There is a very clear way that any sophisticated utilitarian could handle this proposal.

Argument that utilitarianism is an inadequate moral theory because it can sometimes require us to violate the rights of individuals. What does Aristotle identify as the chief good? happiness. According to Pojman, how might a sophisticated utilitarian argue that torturing an innocent person is immoral, even when immediate utility concerns recommend doing so?

a. Human rights are outcomes of utility considerations and should not be violated lightly. If rule utilitarianism is correct, then sometimes the moral thing to do is an act that does not maximize happiness. True A virtue of utilitarianism is that it has a potential answer for every situation.

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The History of Utilitarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)