History of labour law Labour law arose in parallel with the Industrial Revolution as the relationship between worker and employer changed from small-scale production studios to large-scale factories. Workers sought better conditions and the right to join or avoid joining a labour unionwhile employers sought a more predictable, flexible and less costly workforce.
The strategic offensive pursues the aim of the war directly, aiming straight at the destruction of the enemy's forces 20th century theory[ edit ] Applied to specific forms of warfaresuch as naval warfareCorbett argued that By maritime strategy we mean the principles which govern a war in which the sea is a substantial factor.
A closer examination of the values and culture of origin reveals its war priorities. The definition of each principle has been refined over the following decades and adopted throughout the British armed forces. The tenth principle, added later, was originally called Administration.
The first principle has always been stated as pre-eminent and the second is usually considered more important than the remainder, which are not listed in any order of importance. They are enduring, but not immutable, absolute or prescriptive, and provide an appropriate foundation for all military activity.
The relative importance of each may vary according to context; their application requires judgement, common sense and intelligent interpretation. Commanders also need to take into account the legitimacy of their actions, based on the legal, moral, political, diplomatic and ethical propriety of the conduct of military forces, once committed.
Selection and Maintenance of the Aim - A single, unambiguous aim is the keystone of successful military operations. Selection and maintenance of the aim is regarded as the master principle of war.
Maintenance of Morale - Morale is a positive state of mind derived from inspired political and military leadership, a shared sense of purpose and values, well-being, perceptions of worth and group cohesion.
Offensive Action - Offensive action is the practical way in which a commander seeks to gain advantage, sustain momentum and seize the initiative. Security - Security is the provision and maintenance of an operating environment that affords the necessary freedom of action, when and where required, to achieve objectives.
Surprise - Surprise is the consequence of shock and confusion induced by the deliberate or incidental introduction of the unexpected.
Concentration of Force - Concentration of force involves the decisive, synchronized application of superior fighting power conceptual, physical, and moral to realize intended effects, when and where required. Economy of Effort - Economy of effort is the judicious exploitation of manpower, materiel and time in relation to the achievement of objectives.
Cooperation - Cooperation entails the incorporation of teamwork and a sharing of dangers, burdens, risks and opportunities in every aspect of warfare. Sustainability - To sustain a force is to generate the means by which its fighting power and freedom of action are maintained.
These principles of war are commonly used by the armed forces of Commonwealth countries such as Australia. Principles of war in the Soviet Union and Russia[ edit ] Soviet adoption of the principles of war is considered a part of Military Artand is therefore a system of knowledge that is the theory and practice of preparing and conducting military operations on the land, at sea, and in the air.
Similar principles continue to be followed in CIS countries. Initiative, in this sense describes efforts to fulfill the plan in spite of difficulties. This is in contrast to the western usage of the term which means attacking or threatening to attack to force enemy reaction, thus denying his ability to act.
Orders are to be followed exactly and without question. Commanders are expected to directly supervise subordinates in a detailed manner in order to ensure compliance.
All aspects of security, from deception and secrecy, to severe discipline of subordinates who through action or inaction allow information to fall into the hands of the enemy are to be vigorously carried out.
Thus it can be seen that in Military art, the Soviet and Western systems are similar, but place their emphasis in wildly differing places. Western systems allow more control and decision-making at lower levels of command, and with this empowerment comes a consistent emphasis.
Offensive, mass, and maneuver principles for the western commander all place a sense of personal responsibility and authority to ensure these principles are followed by appropriate action.
In contrast the Soviet system stresses preparedness, initiative, and obedience. This places more responsibility at the better prepared and informed centers of command, and provide more overall control of the battle. The ultimate military purpose of war is the destruction of the enemy's ability to fight and will to fight.
Offensive action is the most effective and decisive way to attain a clearly defined common objective. Offensive operations are the means by which a military force seizes and holds the initiative while maintaining freedom of action and achieving decisive results.
This is fundamentally true across all levels of war.SAMPLE STATEMENT OF PURPOSE - BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Ph.D.
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