How effective is the use of

This fact sheet discusses research findings on effective treatment approaches for drug abuse and addiction. What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by compulsive, or uncontrollable, drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences and changes in the brain, which can be long lasting. These changes in the brain can lead to the harmful behaviors seen in people who use drugs.

How effective is the use of

September Volume 70 Number 1 Feedback for Learning Pages Seven Keys to Effective Feedback Grant Wiggins Advice, evaluation, grades—none of these provide the descriptive information that students need to reach their goals.

What is true feedback—and how can it improve learning? Who would dispute the idea that feedback is a good thing? Both common sense and research make it clear: Formative assessment, consisting of lots of feedback and opportunities to use that feedback, enhances performance and achievement. Yet even John Hattiewhose decades of research revealed that feedback was among the most powerful influences on achievement, acknowledges that he has "struggled to understand the concept" p.

And many writings on the subject don't even attempt to define the term. To improve formative assessment practices among both teachers and assessment designers, we need to look more closely at just what feedback is—and isn't.

What Is Feedback, Anyway? The term feedback is often used to describe all kinds of comments made after the fact, including advice, praise, and evaluation. But none of these are feedback, strictly speaking. Basically, feedback is information about how we are doing in our efforts to reach a goal.

I hit a tennis ball with the goal of keeping it in the court, and I see where it lands—in or out. I tell a joke with the goal of making people laugh, and I observe the audience's reaction—they laugh loudly or barely snicker.

I teach a lesson with the goal of engaging students, and I see that some students have their eyes riveted on me while others are nodding off. Here are some other examples of feedback: A friend tells me, "You know, when you put it that way and speak in that softer tone of voice, it makes me feel better.

The scene painted was vivid and interesting. But then the dialogue became hard to follow; as a reader, I was confused about who was talking, and the sequence of actions was puzzling, so I became less engaged. On the one you hit hard, you kept your head down and saw the ball. In the first group, I only had to take note of the tangible effect of my actions, keeping my goals in mind.

No one volunteered feedback, but there was still plenty of feedback to get and use. The second group of examples all involved the deliberate, explicit giving of feedback by other people.

Whether the feedback was in the observable effects or from other people, in every case the information received was not advice, nor was the performance evaluated. No one told me as a performer what to do differently or how "good" or "bad" my results were.

You might think that the reader of my writing was judging my work, but look at the words used again: She simply played back the effect my writing had on her as a reader. Nor did any of the three people tell me what to do which is what many people erroneously think feedback is—advice.

Guidance would be premature; I first need to receive feedback on what I did or didn't do that would warrant such advice. In all six cases, information was conveyed about the effects of my actions as related to a goal.

The information did not include value judgments or recommendations on how to improve. For examples of information that is often falsely viewed as feedback, see "Feedback vs. Advice" above and "Feedback vs. Evaluation and Grades" on p. Compare the typical lecture-driven course, which often produces less-than-optimal learning, with the peer instruction model developed by Eric Mazur at Harvard.

He hardly lectures at all to his introductory physics students; instead, he gives them problems to think about individually and then discuss in small groups. This system, he writes, "provides frequent and continuous feedback to both the students and the instructor about the level of understanding of the subject being discussed" p.

Less "teaching," more feedback equals better results. Feedback Essentials Whether feedback is just there to be grasped or is provided by another person, helpful feedback is goal-referenced; tangible and transparent; actionable; user-friendly specific and personalized ; timely; ongoing; and consistent.

Feedback Essentials

Goal-Referenced Effective feedback requires that a person has a goal, takes action to achieve the goal, and receives goal-related information about his or her actions. I told a joke—why? To make people laugh.

I wrote a story to engage the reader with vivid language and believable dialogue that captures the characters' feelings. I went up to bat to get a hit.Contraceptive use. Combined oral contraceptive pills are a type of oral medication that is designed to be taken every day, at the same time of day, in order to prevent pregnancy.

How effective is the use of

Active listening, as the name implies requires effort. It is much more than simply "hearing" what is being said.

How effective is the use of

This article will show you how to improve your listening skills to make you a better conversationalist, and a more empathetic friend, spouse, parent or partner.

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Affective vs. effective – Grammarist