Public Domain "It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen. But when you see the original manuscript, you find something else:
The time has come to rethink wilderness. This will seem a heretical claim to many environmentalists, since the idea of wilderness has for decades been a fundamental tenet—indeed, a passion—of the environmental movement, especially in the United States.
For many Americans wilderness stands as the last remaining place where civilization, that all too human disease, has not fully infected the earth.
It is an island in the polluted sea of urban-industrial modernity, the one place we can turn for escape from our own too-muchness.
Seen in this way, wilderness presents itself as the best antidote to our human selves, a refuge we must somehow recover if we hope to save the planet. The more one knows of its peculiar history, the more one realizes that wilderness is not quite what it seems.
Far from being the one place on earth that stands apart from humanity, it is quite profoundly a human creation—indeed, the creation of very particular human cultures at very particular moments in human history.
It is not a pristine sanctuary where the last remnant of an untouched, endangered, but still transcendent nature can for at least a little while longer be encountered without the contaminating taint of civilization.
Wilderness hides its unnaturalness behind a mask that is all the more beguiling because it seems so natural. As we gaze into the mirror it holds up for getting words when writing a book us, we too easily imagine that what we behold is Nature when in fact we see the reflection of our own unexamined longings and desires.
To assert the unnaturalness of so natural a place will no doubt seem absurd or even perverse to many readers, so let me hasten to add that the nonhuman world we encounter in wilderness is far from being merely our own invention.
I celebrate with others who love wilderness the beauty and power of the things it contains. Each of us who has spent time there can conjure images and sensations that seem all the more hauntingly real for having engraved themselves so indelibly on our memories.
Such memories may be uniquely our own, but they are also familiar enough be to be instantly recognizable to others. The torrents of mist shoot out from the base of a great waterfall in the depths of a Sierra canyon, the tiny droplets cooling your face as you listen to the roar of the water and gaze up toward the sky through a rainbow that hovers just out of reach.
Remember the feelings of such moments, and you will know as well as I do that you were in the presence of something irreducibly nonhuman, something profoundly Other than yourself Wilderness is made of that too.
The wilderness was where Moses had wandered with his people for forty years, and where they had nearly abandoned their God to worship a golden idol. And he was there in the wilderness for forty days tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.
But by the end of the nineteenth century, all this had changed. The wastelands that had once seemed worthless had for some people come to seem almost beyond price. That Thoreau in could declare wildness to be the preservation of the world suggests the sea change that was going on.
Wilderness had once been the antithesis of all that was orderly and good—it had been the darkness, one might say, on the far side of the garden wall—and yet now it was frequently likened to Eden itself. One by one, various corners of the American map came to be designated as sites whose wild beauty was so spectacular that a growing number of citizens had to visit and see them for themselves.
Niagara Falls was the first to undergo this transformation, but it was soon followed by the Catskills, the Adirondacks, Yosemite, Yellowstone, and others. Yosemite was deeded by the U. The dam was eventually built, but what today seems no less significant is that so many people fought to prevent its completion.
Even as the fight was being lost, Hetch Hetchy became the baffle cry of an emerging movement to preserve wilderness.
Fifty years earlier, such opposition would have been unthinkable. Now the defenders of Hetch Hetchy attracted widespread national attention by portraying such an act not as improvement or progress but as desecration and vandalism.
The sources of this rather astonishing transformation were many, but for the purposes of this essay they can be gathered under two broad headings: Of the two, the sublime is the older and more pervasive cultural construct, being one of the most important expressions of that broad transatlantic movement we today label as romanticism; the frontier is more peculiarly American, though it too had its European antecedents and parallels.
The two converged to remake wilderness in their own image, freighting it with moral values and cultural symbols that it carries to this day.
Indeed, it is not too much to say that the modern environmental movement is itself a grandchild of romanticism and post-frontier ideology, which is why it is no accident that so much environmentalist discourse takes its bearings from the wilderness these intellectual movements helped create.
Although wilderness may today seem to be just one environmental concern among many, it in fact serves as the foundation for a long list of other such concerns that on their face seem quite remote from it.
That is why its influence is so pervasive and, potentially, so insidious. To gain such remarkable influence, the concept of wilderness had to become loaded with some of the deepest core values of the culture that created and idealized it:Hello, welcome to a little thing called Words Join , other writers by signing up now → ★ What is this site about?
It's about learning a new habit: Writing. Every. Day. I've long been inspired by an idea I first learned about in The Artist's Way called morning pages. Morning pages are three pages of writing done every day, typically encouraged to be in "long hand", typically done.
Get daily e-book deals and perks—plus, download a free e-book just for signing up! The entries for the second run of the Bad Writing Contest have now been tabulated, and we are pleased to announce winners. But first a few tedious words. Doing activities with your children allows you to promote their reading and writing skills while having fun at the same time.
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In Observer editor David Astor lent George Orwell a remote Scottish farmhouse in which to write his new book, Nineteen Eighty-Four. It became one of the most significant novels of the 20th.