Floating point and lt

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Floating point and lt

Because of its superior performance, excellent community support and ease of file sharing, it is rapidly replacing all other SPICE programs, regardless of price, as the simulator of choice for hobbyists, students and professionals alike.

The purpose of this topic is to explore and explain some of the many useful or quirky features that have never appeared in the standard documentation whether due to simple oversight, the feature being considered not important enough, not polished enough or functionally obsolete — or even due to the feature being considered proprietary to another brand of SPICE or to LTspice itself.

Floating point and lt

LTC considers some of these undocumented features as fair game for open discussion in public forums such as the LTspice Yahoo users group, whereas for others, it considers any such open discussions as a violation of its License Agreement.

Such items are all considered as having been officially "documented" and are specifically allowed as discussion topics in public forums such as the LTspice Yahoo users group.

However, be advised that any items that have been dropped from the documentation, even if still functional, should generally be considered obsolete and in risk of being purged from the program code at any time fortunately, such items are quite rare.

As to the classification of anything not covered above, you must make your own common sense judgment or ask the advice of the users group moderator or the program author via private email. A lot of the standard devices have undocumented parameters e.

For these reasons, this last category of undocumented features will not be directly discussed here. However, because of the 52 bit precision of the fractional part of the significand, the practical numerical dynamic range will be circuit dependent.

A 53 bit binary significand gives LTspice about 16 significant figures for internal math computations.

Floating point and lt

Thus, if impedances vary by more than 16 orders of magnitude, numerical difficulties may ensue, depending on the topology of the circuit this is because matrix solving frequently involves differencing two very similar numbers — for example, the next larger number than one is 1.

LTspice's proprietary alternate solver extends this precision by about another 3 orders of magnitude at a cost of a modest speed penalty. The Help file lists A-device syntax as: A-devices are always netlisted with the full eight connections.

The netlister connects any unused inputs and outputs to terminal 8. The A-device compiler recognizes this condition as a flag that that terminal is not used and removes it from the simulation matrix.

A-devices are implemented this way to allow a single device type to act as any combination of a 1 to 5 input, 1 to 2 output device, but with no simulation speed penalty for unused terminals.

Here is a listing of all known LTspice A-devices. Documented directly in Help: SRflop — located in Digital PhaseDet aka PhiDet — located in Digital Counter — located in Digital and documented in the users group has been officially approved for public use SampleHold aka Sample — located in Special Functions Documented in sample schematics included with the program distribution: The R reset input takes precedence over the S set input.

The Examples folder contains a schematic with some documentation: The behavioral a-device Sample and Hold has two modes of operation. Note that one and only one of these two inputs must be connected.

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Parameters unique to the Sample and Hold a-device are as follows: Vhigh defaults to 10V and Vlow defaults to V note: The default transfer function is a hyperbolic tangent tanhwhich closely approximates the transfer function of a bipolar transistor differential amplifier this limit can be disabled by adding the flag parameter, Linear.

The transconductance current source output appears on pin 7. As usual, pin 8, if connected, becomes the device's floating "gnd" reference.

For reference, a dc "rail" voltage, which represents the maximum possible output calculated from combining both voltage and current saturation limitsappears on pin 6.How do you explain floating point inaccuracy to fresh programmers and laymen who still think computers are infinitely wise and accurate?

Do you have a favourite example or anecdote which seems to g. CARNEYS POINT TWP. -- A woman was found drowned in her car Sunday morning after apparently making a wrong turn and driving into a creek, authorities said.

General [] What is Octave? [GNU Octave is a high-level interpreted language, primarily intended for numerical computations.

It provides capabilities for the numerical solution of linear and nonlinear problems, and for performing other numerical experiments. 11/9/ 1 MIPS Floating Point Instructions CS/COE Why Floating Point? • Sometimes need very small, or very large numbers? Non-integers?

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