Specialization can occur on both the microeconomic level and the macroeconomic level. Microeconomic Specialization At the individual level, specialization usually comes in the form of career or labor specialization. Each member of an organization or economy, for example, has a unique set of talents, abilities, skills and interests that make her uniquely able to perform a set of tasks. Labor specialization exploits these unique talents and places people in areas where they perform the best, helping both the individual as well as the overall economy.
As used since, the term has been focused primarily on the real exchange rate. The term was used by Corden and Nearywhose reference to it as " Edgeworth-Bowley box The origins of this were examined by Tarascio The diagram was first drawn by Paretobased originally, though only very partially, on a diagram of Edgeworth However, Bowley did not claim originality, and while he cited Edgeworth for the contract curve, he neither named nor attributed the box diagram.
Indeed, in his own diagram showing exchange, his focus was on the internal portion and he did not extend the axes of his two indifference maps far enough to touch or cross, and therefore did not actually produce a box.
And had he done so, his box would have been a mirror image of the one we normally draw today. It was Paretowriting in Italian that was soon translated into French, who had actually been the first to draw and use the box diagram. It is unclear whether his contribution was known to Bowley and to others writing in English until later.
His diagram, displaying indifference curves for two consumers, one drawn conventionally and one rotated degrees, formed the box very much as we know it today, for exchange between consumers. I have searched in Google Scholar for "Edgeworth box," "Edgeworth-Bowley box," "box diagram," and the joint appearance of "Edgeworth" and "box.
Their Figure 2, p. Of this they said: This is done in Fig. Since this classic paper did not find its way into publication immediately see Deardorff and Sternit seems very likely that Saumuelson introduced his version and name of the box to his colleagues and students in the years before this.
Whether he himself originated it or picked it up from others as an oral tradition, I do not know. Based on all of this, it appears that the box applied to consumption, as well as the Edgeworth production boxhave both often been called just the Edgeworth Box, even though Edgeworth never drew either.
Pareto was more deserving of having his name on the consumption version of the box diagram than either Edgeworth or Bowley.
Stolper and Samuelson, if they needed further recognition, should share credit for the application to production that has played such a large role in international trade theory.
And it seems likely that they, too, were the ones who led us to call it the Edgeworth or Edgeworth-Bowley box ever since. Some were intrigued, but hated the name. Fragmentation As used to mean a splitting up of production processes, the term fragmentation was first introduced by Jones and Kierzkowskiwho start their analysis by noting p.
Such fragmentation spills over to international markets. Many other terms have been used with the same, or related, meanings, as listed herebut "fragmentation" seems to have caught on most widely. While he also does not call this a gravity model, he does mention the parallel:Country Level Economics: Policies, Institutions, and Macroeconomic Performance from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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The Father of Economics Adam Smith, who is often referred to as the father of economics, believed that specialization and the division of labor were the most important causes of economic progress.
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We organize our review around an economics-based framework that examines the supply and demand forces that shape the audit market.
A dominant feature of the literature we review is its primary focus on audit quality.