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Structure[ edit ] Crime and Punishment has a distinct beginning, middle and end. The novel is divided into six parts, with an epilogue. The notion of "intrinsic duality" in Crime and Punishment has been commented upon, with the suggestion that there is a degree of symmetry to the book.
The first half of the novel shows the progressive death of the first ruling principle of his character; the last half, the progressive birth of the new ruling principle. The point of change comes in the very middle of the novel.
The recurrence of these episodes in the two halves of the novel, as David Bethea has argued, is organized according to a mirror-like principle, whereby the "left" half of the novel reflects the "right" half.
Steven Cassedy argues that Crime and Punishment "is formally two distinct but closely related, things, namely a particular type of tragedy in the classical Greek mold and a Christian resurrection tale".
At the same time, this tragedy contains a Christian component, and the logical demands of this element are met only by the resurrection promised in the Epilogue". Dostoevskys raskolnikov and the problem of is focalized primarily from the point of view of Raskolnikov; however, it does at times switch to the perspective of Svidrigailov, Razumikhin, Peter Petrovich, or Dunya.
This narrative technique, which fuses the narrator very closely with the consciousness and point of view of the central characters of the plot, was original for its period. A late nineteenth-century reader was, however, accustomed to more orderly and linear types of expository narration.
Those who use artificial language—Luzhin, for example—are identified as unattractive people. In the original Russian text, the names of the major characters have something of a double meaningbut in translation the subtlety of the Russian language is predominately lost due to major differences in the language structure and culture.
For example, the original title " " is not the direct equivalent to the English. The physical image of crime as a crossing over a barrier or a boundary is lost in translation. So is the religious implication of transgression, which in English refers to a sin rather than a crime.
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His reaction is pivotal, provoking his first taking of life toward the rationalization of himself as above greater society. The dream is later mentioned when Raskolnikov talks to Marmeladov.
The dream is also a warning, foreshadowing an impending murder and holds several comparisons to his murder of the pawnbroker.
The dream occurs after Rodion crosses a bridge leading out of the oppressive heat and dust of Petersburg and into the fresh greenness of the islands. This symbolizes a corresponding mental crossing, suggesting that Raskolnikov is returning to a state of clarity when he has the dream.
In it, he returns to the innocence of his childhood and watches as a group of peasants beat an old mare to death. Therefore, in order for Raskolnikov to find redemption, he must ultimately renounce his theory. Cross[ edit ] Sonya gives Rodya a cross when he goes to turn himself in and symbolizes the burden Raskolnikov must bear.
Self-sacrifice, along with poverty, is a larger theme of the novel. The desperation of poverty creates a situation where the only way to survive is through self-sacrifice, which Raskolnikov consistently rejects, as part of his philosophical reasoning.
Dostoevsky continues the use of this symbol from his earlier work Notes from Underground where the narrator rants about determinism and logic.
The environment of Saint Petersburg[ edit ] On an exceptionally hot evening early in July a young man came out of the garret in which he lodged in S. Place and walked slowly, as though in hesitation, towards K.
Russian critic Vadim K. Kozhinov argues that the reference to the "exceptionally hot evening" establishes not only the suffocating atmosphere of Saint Petersburg in midsummer but also "the infernal ambience of the crime itself". Evnin regards Crime and Punishment as the first great Russian novel "in which the climactic moments of the action are played out in dirty taverns, on the street, in the sordid back rooms of the poor".
Donald Fanger asserts that "the real city It is crowded, stifling, and parched. Of note, the Russian term for lunatic asylum, "zholti dom", is literally translated as "yellow house".
He thus attacked a peculiar Russian blend of French utopian socialism and Benthamite utilitarianism, which had led to what revolutionaries, such as Nikolai Chernyshevskycalled " rational egoism ".
The aim of these ideas was altruistic and humanitarian, but these aims were to be achieved by relying on reason and suppressing entirely the spontaneous outflow of Christian pity and compassion.
Frank notes that "the moral-psychological traits of his character incorporate this antinomy between instinctive kindness, sympathy, and pity on the one hand and, on the other, a proud and idealistic egoism that has become perverted into a contemptuous disdain for the submissive herd". He even becomes fascinated with the majestic image of a Napoleonic personality who, in the interests of a higher social good, believes that he possesses a moral right to kill.
Indeed, his "Napoleon-like" plan drags him to a well-calculated murder, the ultimate conclusion of his self-deception with utilitarianism.Part Two Essay: Alienation of Raskolnikov The Epilogue's Necessity to a Christian Theme The Morality of Murder: Dostoyevsky's Complication of "the Trolley Problem".
Sonya’s affect on Raskolnikov Sonya, throughout the story had a great affect on Raskolnikov’s changes.
In the novel, Crime and Punishment by Fyoder Dostoevsky, this can be seen from all the things Sonya had done for Raskolnikov and what affect the cold person turned loving. Dostoyevsky and the Problem of God Elissa Kiskaddon "Nothing is more seductive for man than his freedom of conscience.
But nothing is a greater cause of suffering.". Fyodor Dostoevsky () is a Russian novelist whose works anticipate existential psychoanalysis. The crucial aspect of Dostoevsky's approach to the problem of evil in the Brother's Karamazov is how can we believe rationalizations of solutions in the face of the horrors of natural atrocity and the death of a small child.
Further Reading. Crime and Punishment is written from a third-person omniscient perspective. It is focalized primarily from the point of view of Raskolnikov; however, it does at times switch to the perspective of Svidrigailov, Razumikhin, Peter Petrovich, or Dunya.
Fyodor Dostoevsky, living a life of suffering himself, created the character of Raskolnikov with the preconceptions of his own sorrowful and struggling life.
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