This lack of documentation is taken by many anti-Stratfordians as evidence that Shakespeare had little or no education.
Those who subscribe to the theory that Sir Francis Bacon wrote the Shakespeare work generally refer to themselves as "Baconians", while dubbing those who maintain the orthodox view that William Shakespeare of Stratford wrote them "Stratfordians".
A year later, both Smith and Delia Bacon published books expounding the Baconian theory. Inin the library of Northumberland Houseone John Bruce happened upon a bundle of bound documents, some of whose sheets had been ripped away.
On the outer sheet was scrawled repeatedly the names of Bacon and Shakespeare along with the name of Thomas Nashe. The Earl of Northumberland sent the bundle to James Speddingwho subsequently penned a thesis on the subject, with which was published a facsimile of the aforementioned cover.
Spedding hazarded a date, making it possibly the earliest extant mention of Shakespeare. Pott founded the Francis Bacon Society in and published her Bacon-centered theory in Wigston,  that Francis Bacon was the founding member of the Rosicruciansa secret society of occult philosophers, and claimed that they secretly created art, literature and drama, including the entire Shakespeare canon, before adding the symbols of the rose and cross to their work.
Other Baconians ignored the esoteric following that the theory was attracting. The argument runs that, he intended to set up new institutes of experimentation to gather the data to which his inductive method could be applied.
He needed high office to gain the requisite influence,  and being known as a dramatist, allegedly low-class profession, would have impeded his prospects see Stigma of print. In this way, he could influence the nobility through dramatic performance with his observations on what constitutes "good" government.
By the end of the 19th century, Baconian theory had received support from a number of high-profile individuals.
Mark Twain showed an inclination for it in his essay Is Shakespeare Dead? Friedrich Nietzsche expressed interest in and gave credence to the Baconian theory in his writings.
He eventually published two pamphlets supporting the theory in and In a judge in Chicago ruled in a civil trial that Bacon was the true author of the Shakespeare canon. Furthermore, alternative authorship theories failed to make any headway among academics.
Baconian cryptology[ edit ] In Ignatius L. Donnellya U. Congressmanscience fiction author and Atlantis theorist, wrote The Great Cryptogram, in which he argued that Bacon revealed his authorship of the works by concealing secret ciphers in the text. This produced a plethora of late 19th-century Baconian theorising, which developed the theme that Bacon had hidden encoded messages in the plays.
The most remarkable revelation was that Bacon was the son of Queen Elizabeth. According to Owen, Bacon revealed that Elizabeth was secretly married to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicesterwho fathered both Bacon himself and Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essexthe latter ruthlessly executed by his own mother in This tragic life-story was the secret hidden in the plays.
Dawbarn in Uncrowned The project ended with his death in The American art collector Walter Conrad Arensberg — believed that Bacon had concealed messages in a variety of ciphers, relating to a secret history of the time and the esoteric secrets of the Rosicrucians, in the Shakespearean works.
He published a variety of decipherments between andconcluding finally that, although he had failed to find them, there certainly were concealed messages. He established the Francis Bacon Foundation in California in and left it his collection of Baconiana. In the expert cryptographers William and Elizebeth Friedman published The Shakespearean ciphers examined, a study of all the proposed ciphers identified by Baconians and others up to that point.
The Friedmans had worked with Gallup. Even mainstream Shakespearean scholar Horace Howard Furnesswrote that "Had the plays come down to us anonymously — had the labour of discovering the author been imposed upon future generations — we could have found no one of that day but Francis Bacon to whom to assign the crown.
In this case it would have been resting now upon his head by almost common consent. His Latin is derived from school books of the era. Ben Jonson and Francis Beaumont both refer to his lack of classical learning. Not only does he mistake the scansion of many classical names, in Troilus and Cressida he has Greeks and Trojans citing Plato and Aristotle a thousand years before their births.
These are two different writers. He did not name Shakespeare among the sixteen greatest cards of the epoch but wrote of Bacon that he "hath filled up all the numbers and performed that in our tongue which may be compared or preferred either to insolent Greece and haughty Rome so that he may be named, and stand as the mark and acme of our language.
Otherwise," declared Caldecott, "it is not easily explicable. This is taken to imply that he published under a pseudonym.
Only the latter uses the name Labeo, so there is no link between Labeo and Bacon. This describes an imaginary trial of recent writers for crimes against literature.Four differentiated activities focusing Macbeth’s character using quotations from across the text.
Could be used as homework or as part of a lesson. A Letter to Harper's In April , Harper's magazine published a group of ten essays collectively entitled "The Ghost of Shakespeare." Five of the essays were by Oxfordians, arguing that the Earl of Oxford wrote the works of Shakespeare, while five were by Shakespeare scholars arguing that William Shakespeare was the author.
The Fascinating Stage History of Othello According to the Accounts of the Master of the Revels (published in ), Othello was performed in The full entry reads: "By the King's Majesty's Players. Hallowmas Day, being the first of November, a play in the banqueting house at Whitehall called The Moor of Venice."Other evidence supports the fact that Shakespeare wrote the play in or before.
Research-Shakespeare 1. William Shakespeare was baptized on 26th April, , and died on 23rd April, , his actual birth date remained unknown.
He was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world’s famous dramatist. Context. The most influential writer in all of English literature, William Shakespeare was born in to a successful middle-class glove-maker in Stratford-upon-Avon, England.
Another issue is Shakespeare s use of the King s role relating to the social context. The people in Shakespeare s time thought that the Gods appointed the king s role as he represents the land, so the action of the king is always approved by the society.