Recent site activity Hypothesis The goal of a hypothesis is to help explain the focus and direction of the experiment or research. As such, a hypothesis will: Needs to be logical Must use precise language Should be testable with research or experimentation A hypothesis is usually written in a form where it proposes that if something is done, then something else will occur. More students get sick during the final week of testing that at other times.
It is a method used by humans to try to make sense of the world and universe in which they live.
Pure Science - The seeking of information for its own sake. The pursuit of knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Biology is the scientific study of living organisms from the Greek bios, meaning "life" and logos, meaning "discourse in" or "study of". Within biology, there are several subdisciplines that are more narrow in focus.
Here are just a few of the subdisciplines of biology Scientists all start their work by making observations and noticing interesting things.
That's what you did when you went out and took pictures. Which brings us to two ways of thinking. Deductive Reasoning Scientists use both inductive and deductive reasoning to address observations.
Inductive Reasoning is sometimes called the "from the bottom up" approach. When we use inductive reasoning, our specific observations and measurements may begin to show us a general pattern.
This might allow us to formulate a tentative hypothesis that can be further explored, and we might finally end up making some general conclusions. In this case, one might construct an argument like so: Items X, Y, and Z all have shown to have characteristic W.
Therefore, all items in the same class as X, Y and Z probably also have W. This bee stung me. It is a hymenopteran. This wasp stung me. This fire ant stung me.
I'm starting to see a pattern here. All hymenopterans have stingers. One potential pitfall here is the "inductive leap": When you make the jump from many specific observations to a general observation, your generalization might not be correct every time. For example, there are many hymenopterans stingless bees and ants, male honeybees, etc.
Although generalizations are certainly useful, the wise scientist is always aware that there may be exceptions to a general rule, and even to the possibility that the "general rule" might eventually be found to be wrong more often than not.
And that's where Deductive Reasoning comes in. Deductive Reasoning is sometimes called the "from the top down" approach. In this case, we start with a general idea and work down to the more specific.
Deductive reasoning is used to test existing theories and hypotheses general ideas by collecting experimental observations specific examples that put those ideas to the test. One of the most useful ways to use this method is to construct a syllogism, a specific type of argument that has three simple steps: Every X has the characteristic Y.
This thing in my hand is X. Therefore, this thing has the characteristic Y. All wasps have stingers.Scientific method is an organized and systematized effort to gain knowledge that uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain nature or natural phenomenon.
Scientific method begins with observation and defining the problem by asking questions. This is followed by formulation of hypothesis. Hypothesis is an educated guess, a possible answer or a predictive statement that can be.
A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. A scientific hypothesis must be testable and based on previous observations or extensions of scientific theories. Example of Experimental Design in Biology: Deciding the Sample Size Needed This example concerns a Biology student who took STAT and then became involved in a research project during the summer.
In planning the experiment, a key question was how big a sample was needed. These biology experiments are designed for you to do at home or school using simple equipment. For some experiments, you may need a calculator. Here is a link to an excellent one provided by Webcalc.
To access experiments, click on one of the experiments listed below. In most cases, it is simplest to copy the experiment into a word processing program, and then print it out. As a general rule of thumb, especially when you are starting out in biology, you should limit yourself to one independent variable per experiment.
A good example of hypothesis testing based on observation comes from early studies of coral bleaching.
As mentioned above, bleaching is when corals lose the photosynthetic microorganisms . This lesson will give the definition of a null hypothesis, as well as an alternative hypothesis. What is a Null Hypothesis? - Definition & Examples.
Biology Lesson Plans: Physiology.