Leadership, Politics, and Social Change: Nigeria and the Struggle for Survival By Victor Dike Abstract To lead a multi-ethnic society while remaining committed to democratic principles or norms is an uphill task. This is because incorporating several ethnic groups into a single political system means bringing together the basic problem of ethnic conflict as well. Group loyalties dividing a multi-ethnic society can, and do undermine, a common identity, national culture, or consensus on democratic values.
Researchers have described many different types of leadership styles. The following are just a few of the most prominent leadership frameworks and styles that have been identified.
While further research has identified more distinct types of leadership, this early study was very influential and established three major leadership styles.
In the study, schoolchildren were assigned to one of three groups with an authoritarian, democratic or laissez-fair leader. The children were then led in an arts and crafts project while researchers observed the behavior of children in response to the different styles of leadership.
Authoritarian Leadership Autocratic Authoritarian leaders, also known as autocratic leaders, provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. This style of leadership is strongly focused on both command by the leader and control of the followers.
There is also a clear division between the leader and the members. Authoritarian leaders make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group.
Researchers found that decision-making was less creative under authoritarian leadership. Lewin also concluded that it is harder to move from an authoritarian style to a democratic style than vice versa.
Abuse of this method is usually viewed as controlling, bossy, and dictatorial. Authoritarian leadership is best applied to situations where there is little time for group decision-making or where the leader is the most knowledgeable member of the group. The autocratic approach can be a good thing when the situation calls for rapid decisions and decisive actions.
However, it tends to create dysfunctional and even hostile environments, often pitting followers against the domineering leader. Participative Leadership Democratic Lewin? Democratic leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members.
Participative leaders encourage group members to participate but retain the final say in the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative. Democratic leaders tend to make followers feel like they are an important part of the team, which helps foster commitment to the goals of the group.
Delegative Laissez-Faire Leadership Researchers found that children under delegative leadership, also known as laissez-fair leadership, were the least productive of all three groups.
The children in this group also made more demands on the leader, showed little cooperation and were unable to work independently. Delegative leaders offer little or no guidance to group members and leave decision-making up to group members.
While this style can be useful in situations involving highly qualified experts, it often leads to poorly defined roles and a lack of motivation. Lewin noted that laissez-faire leadership tended to result in groups that lacked direction where members blamed each other for mistakes, refused to accept personality responsibility, and produced a lack of progress and work.
The cluster has often been described in pejorative terms. Autocrats stress obedience, loyalty, strict adherence to roles.Criticism of democracy is grounded in democracy's contested definition—its purpose, process, and outcomes. Since Classical antiquity and through the modern era, democracy has been associated with "rule of the people," "rule of the majority," and free selection or election either through direct participation or elected representation respectively, but has not been linked to a particular outcome.
The key features of each of these leadership styles can be summarised as follows: Authoritarian. Autocratic leaders hold onto as much power and decision-making as possible.
Examine the attributes of leadership that may be needed for graduate level nurses. MY answer: One attributes that is important and needed for graduate level nurses is flexibility to adopt to all different styles of leadership as they will be faced with different situations from their expanded role .
The big difference between Autocratic and Demographic leadership style is the fact that in democratic style employees take part (give their opinion) in decision making. In contrast of autocratic style, democratic takes more time for decision making because of the participation of all staff.
Leadership, Politics, and Social Change: Nigeria and the Struggle for Survival.
By Victor Dike. Abstract To lead a multi-ethnic society while remaining committed to democratic principles or . Related Documents: Essay on Compare and Contrast Autocratic and Democratic Leadership Styles Management and Autocratic Management Style Essay the choice of the best management style depending on the situational, lassez fair is a poor management style with no structure, in other words democracy gone wild, 2.